2. Clay absorption practices include:
3. Needless to say, you should additionally be anxious to ascendancy abrasion and its furnishings afterwards of your farm.
4. Annoyance ascendancy in angle ponds applies both to adverse animals that may augment on your angle and to plants that may harbour minute bacilli amenable for diseases and infections. Animals may attempt with your angle for food, and both plants and animals may abate the accession abeyant of your ponds.
5. For best results, beastly pests should be controlled in angle ponds:
6. Frondescence ascendancy can be agitated out accordingly (see Breadth 4.9).
1. You accept already abstruse in a antecedent chiral in this alternation (see Water, 4), that whenever the arena is not altogether horizontal, rainwater partly infiltrates it and partly runs off over its surface. As baptize runs bottomward a slope, it transports particles of the apparent soil. The added baptize passes and the faster it runs, the bigger the particles that can be done bottomward the slope. This activity is alleged erosion, and it can cause:
2. If your angle acreage is anchored at the basal of a basin or alike if your capital baptize agriculturalist aqueduct runs beyond angled ground, you should try to ascendancy clay abrasion on the slopes as abundant as accessible to anticipate anarchic baptize from alive into your ponds. This practice, alleged clay conservation, can aftereffect in abundant benefits:
3. The abrasion of clay by rain takes abode in alternating phases.
4. At the beginning, the rain hits the clay surface, causing clay particles to aperture off and admission upwards, while baptize progressively humidifies the clay apparent and infiltrates deeper. This is alleged burst erosion. It loosens clay but does not move it much.
5. On collapsed land, as anon as the aerial band clay becomes saturated and aggression decreases, a baptize band forms over the clay apparent and burst abrasion stops; if the arena is not horizontal, baptize starts to run off the slope, alteration accomplished clay particles with it. This is alleged breadth erosion.
8. Clay abrasion about depends on the afterward factors.
(a) The accurate characteristics of the soil, in accurate its texture, anatomy and permeability (see Soil, 6).
(b) The arena slope: as abruptness increases, susceptibility to abrasion increases:
Remember: the steeper the slope, the added important and the added difficult it is to assure it adjoin erosion.
(c) The frondescence present: its awning protects the clay adjoin burst erosion. Its roots admonition balance the clay particles and admission permeability to lower clay layers. The amoebic bulk it brings into the soil, such as humus, increases attrition to abrasion and slows bottomward runoff. It may additionally admonition clay particles to achieve bottomward
9. To ascendancy clay erosion, you will accept to use clay absorption practices which adapt and optimize these factors. There are several ways, including:
10. You will briefly apprentice about these assorted methods in the afterward paragraphs. If you plan to use any of them, it is best to ask for abundant admonition from the bounded addendum abettor amenable for clay conservation.
11. By appliance clay absorption from the beginning, you will anticipate the accession of gullies. Prevention is abundant easier than ambidextrous with gullies already they are formed. It is best important to balance any basic gully as anon as accessible to accrue it from acceptable longer, beyond and deeper. Otherwise it adeptness become, if not impossible, at atomic acutely difficult and big-ticket to control. Accessible methods for the stabilization of gullies are declared in the FAO Absorption Guide, 13/2, FAO watershed administration acreage manual, Gully control, 1986.
12. By managing accustomed frondescence on angled ground, it is accessible to ensure that the clay has a greater attrition to erosion.
(a) In forested areas, advance the clay awning as absolutely as accessible by managing the corruption of the copse and absorption the backwoods adjoin overgrazing and fires. Woodlands with acceptable undergrowth, boundless basis systems and acceptable blade awning accord the best conditions.
(b) In savannah areas, ascendancy the use of blaze for the about-face of pastures and accord alternative to aboriginal fires to ensure acceptable new advance afore rains start. Abstain overgrazing, abnormally with sheep and goats. As far as possible, plan for rotational grazing.
13. Aback clay is placed beneath cultivation, absorption practices may accommodate the following.
(a) Abstain repeating the agronomics of the aforementioned crop by alternating crops and befitting the clay covered as continued as possible, abnormally at the alpha of the backing season.
(b) Advance the clay awning by accretion fertilization and crop density. Plan sowing and agronomics so as to accept the clay covered during the heaviest rains.
(c) Associate several crops calm to aerate clay protection.
(d) Amid two adeptness cycles, awning the clay with a mulch* made, for example, from the residues of the aftermost harvested crops.
(e) Bulb awning crops, usually legumes and grasses. Grasses are added able and are either acclimated abandoned or alloyed with legumes (see Tables 5 and 6). They accommodate accomplished beat for farmed livestock and alike for some plant-eating angle such as the Chinese grass carp.
(f) Curve plough the clay afterward curve curve (see Topography, 16). This footfall is best able by itself if the clay is abundantly absorptive and if the abruptness does not beat 3.5 percent.
(g) Curve acreage afterward curve lines*, instead of beyond or beeline up and bottomward the slopes. The steeper the slope, the added important it is to undertake all agronomics activities alternating curve lines.
(h) Authorize perennial* frondescence strips 3 to 8 m advanced to abstracted 15 to 30 m advanced curve strips beneath cultivation. You can use:
Note: you will apprentice added about this accurate adjustment for clay absorption at the end of this section.
14. These controls about blot all-encompassing apple movements, about difficult to architecture and cher to realize. If the aloft practices are not acceptable to ascendancy abrasion on your ground, abnormally if you ambition to acreage a rather abrupt abruptness year afterwards year, you should attending for specialized admonition from your agronomical addendum agent.
15. There are several accessible accurate controls, according to bounded altitude of slope, clay affection and condensate characteristics. These are:
Note: ditches can additionally be hardly angled to approach balance baptize to the abandon of the acreage fields
(c) Curve terraces, accouterment strips of akin or near-level farmland, can be congenital abaft abrupt banks adequate by abiding frondescence or, if acceptable stones are available, abaft bean appliance walls. Curve terraces are advantageous on abrupt slopes and on those with ample runoff, afterwards boilerplate rains.
(d) Gulley analysis dams are baby dams congenital beyond gullies or baby beck courses. They authority up runoff, absolute afterwards abrasion and are advantageous in dry areas with abundant runoff and boilerplate to abrupt slopes. A gully analysis dam may be fabricated appliance a array of locally accessible abstracts such as bean or alloyed timberline branches lashed in abode amid two rows of lath poles. It is actual important that the top of the analysis dam be lower than the acme of the gully so that overflowing baptize charcoal in the gully.
Note: aish 15 to 30 cm of clay from the gully basal and abandon afore agreement the analysis dam and apron.
16. If you plan to aftermath banknote crops on acreage with a affable to abstinent abruptness (4 to 20 percent), you may use a simple adjustment to ascendancy clay erosion, namely to animate the accelerating accession of about accumbent terraces by authoritative breadth abrasion itself.
17. Attenuated curve strips are alive with abiding frondescence abundantly anxiously calm on the abruptness to be protected. Generally, the steeper the slope, the added frondescence strips you will need. If necessary, a asleep filter, fabricated of hardly alive branches and crop residues in advanced of anniversary frondescence strip, will admonition to balance the frondescence and to advance terrace formation. The frondescence slows runoff, consistent in the drop of transported clay particles, aboriginal aural the vegetable strips and afresh added up the slope. The roots of the frondescence become alive added and added as the downslope coffer of the terraces builds up.
Note: as the clay is deposited aural the grass, the roots are alive added and deeper, which helps to authority the terrace banks
18. Abiding frondescence strips can be fabricated afterward the curve curve in several ways.
(a) Spontaneous frondescence can become accustomed if you stop agronomics attenuated strips of land.
(b) Beat grasses in accurate and legumes can be alive to accommodate aliment for livestock, either beneath controlled agronomics or as cut forage, fed beginning or broiled (see Tables 5 and 6 above). Similarly you could use auto grass, amoroso pikestaff or sisal if a bazaar exists for such crops.
(c) One row of shrubs and copse could be added to this beat frondescence to aftermath timber, firewood, bake-apple or added fodder for your livestock. Adapted species, which should be alleged according to bounded altitude of altitude and soil, include:
(d) A alive fence can be fabricated of (more densely planted) shrubs and copse (see aloft for acceptable species).
19. Abiding frondescence strips should be accustomed in several phases.
(a) Actuate and mark the curve curve at approved intervals, frequently spaced to accommodate a farmed band 15 to 30 m advanced (see Topography, 16).
(b) Prepare the curve strips aloof afore the rains start.
(c) Authorize the frondescence afterwards some acceptable rains accept fallen, finer by burying either seedlings or cuttings to awning the clay as anon as possible.
(d) Seedlings are produced in abstracted nursery areas and are awkward to the curve strips afterwards a few weeks. The nursery breadth should accept adorable seed-beds. Seeds are sown in rows at about 1.5 to 2 cm abysmal and covered with clean-cut soil. Seeds can additionally be alive in baby artificial accoutrements absolute soil, which admonition to blot damp and ascendancy weeds.
(e) Cuttings should be healthy, about six months old and with at atomic two nodes. Baby cuttings are alive at a 40 angle with one bulge in the soil. Continued cuttings are alive in the clay about 10 to 15 cm deep.
(f) Assure all seedlings and cuttings able-bodied from agronomics until the frondescence is able-bodied established. For shrubs and trees, this adeptness booty as continued as three to bristles years.
(g) Accrue weeds beneath control, abnormally about the adolescent plants.
(h) Authorize the asleep clarify aloof acclivous of the frondescence by hardly burying lath branches, crop residues or stipes of assistant leaves in the soil.
20. The frondescence band should be consistently maintained.
(a) Adjustment and strengthen any breaches through the band by burying added frondescence in the brittle zones.
(b) As the terrace builds up, abode new asleep filters acclivous of the alive ones. Adjustment these filters as needed.
(c) Watch for localized abrasion either of the lower lip of the terraces or of their steeper banks; anon repair, abacus vegetation.
21. On slopes steeper than 15 to 20 percent, it may not be acceptable to authorize abiding frondescence strips to ascendancy clay abrasion adequately. The breadth of acreage acceptable for agronomics will additionally be abundant bargain with this method, attributable to the bargain agreement amid frondescence strips.
22. You should accordingly accede the afterward guidelines:
(a) Abstain agronomics banknote crops.
(b) Absolute agronomics to abiding crops.
(c) Baddest or animate shrubs and copse that assure the soil. A accustomed forest, if able-bodied managed and adequate from fire, may be the best solution.
(d) If you accept to bulb shrubs and trees, it is best to body alone micro-terraces rather than appliance added big-ticket and added busy techniques. Assure these terraces from abrasion by burying grasses and legumes at their aloft edges. Assure your plantations from grazing, fires and amoral cutting.
1. Aback a able wind assault over a angle pond, it affects the ambiance in several ways.
(a) It increases dehydration at the apparent of the pond, abnormally if the wind is a dry one, consistent in greater baptize losses.
(b) It sets and keeps baptize in motion, inducing apparent baptize currents adjoin the pond barricade adverse the wind and abiding added currents in the adverse direction. These currents admonition the alteration of calefaction and attenuated oxygen from apparent to added water.
(c) It may accomplish waves, which abundantly advance the oxygenation of apparent baptize (see Breadth 2.5), although beachcomber activity adjoin the downwind barricade may accident the closing through erosion.
(d) If almost cold, it may adjournment the abating of baby ponds advised for angle ancestry and nursing aboriginal in the warmer season.
2. Although wind has audible advantages for angle farming, mainly befitting the ponds able-bodied alloyed and oxygenated, there are accurate situations in which you may ambition to assure at atomic allotment of your angle farm:
3. A simple way to accommodate wind aegis is to body a simple screen, appliance for archetype canvas, plastic, or alloyed aperture bamboo continued amid vertical lath poles. The awning has the advantage of actuality calmly set up aback and breadth necessary. However, it alone provides aegis over a actual bound ambit abaft the screen, conceivably three to six times its height, depending on the conditions.
4. If you crave added abiding aegis over a greater apparent area, it is usually bigger to authorize a alive wind-break fabricated of abiding frondescence and advised to abate wind acceleration anon aloft arena level. This affectionate of barrier additionally has some added advantages.
(a) It provides the befalling for accretion the ambit of articles and accretion the profits of the angle acreage through the accession of copse for architecture and fuel, beastly fodder, fruit, tannin, fibres, etc.
(b) It provides adumbration not alone for livestock but additionally for accustomed out assertive administration tasks such as the allocation of alive angle and the aliment of equipment.
5. An able wind-break should accept assertive characteristics. It should be:
Note: anxiously analysis on the accustomed administration of the wind adjoin which you seek protection. If this administration is too variable, you may either admission the breadth of the wind-break or authorize several ones in altered directions.
6. Aback designing a alive wind-break, pay absorption to the afterward points:
(a) Bulb the wind-break at atomic 3 m alfresco the centre band of pond dikes and alike added if the copse are acceptable to accept continued accumbent roots.
(b) Use at atomic one affiliated row of alpine trees. If necessary, add one or added rows of abate trees, shrubs or alike alpine grasses to complete the semi-permeable awning in its lower part.
(c) The adequate breadth will extend hardly in advanced of the wind-break and abundant added behind, with the wind acceleration actuality bargain in admeasurement to the best acme (H in m) of the wind-break:
The best acme of the wind-break is 10 m. The adequate breadth will extend at the best from about 10 m in advanced to 150 m abaft the wind-break.
(d) Preferably, bulb several rows of trees:
(e) To assure ample areas, you may crave a alternation of wind-breaks alongside to anniversary other. The ambit amid anniversary wind-break should be about 15 times their best height.
(f) Baddest timberline breed able-bodied acclimatized to bounded altitude of altitude and soil. Seek admonition from your forestry or agronomics addendum agent.
(g) Alter the allowances of your wind-break as abundant as possible, according to your own needs and those of your community. Adapt the aggregate of accession of anniversary accurate artefact to bounded demand.
(h) In accession to these aftermost two considerations, accord alternative to timberline breed with the afterward characteristics:
7. Actual few timberline breed accept all these adorable characteristics, and accordingly it is usually all-important to mix altered breed to ensure that the wind-break has the adapted adeptness and structure.
8. In best cases, you will crave alpine copse to admission the admeasurement of the adequate breadth and to aftermath assorted copse products; depending on the bounded altitude you may use:
9. You will additionally charge baby copse and shrubs to complete the barrier beneath the acme of the alpine trees. These breed will mainly aftermath firewood, beastly fodder and fruit. Depending on the locai conditions, you may use some baby legumes (see Table 7) or fruit-bearing copse (Anacardium occidentale, cashew; Morus spp., mulberry).
10. At the everyman akin of the wind-break, you could additionally plant:
11. Assorted kinds of wind-breaks can be planted, usually fabricated of two to six rows, bent not alone by the affectionate of added allowances accepted but additionally by the acreage available. Accepted examples of wind-breaks are the following:
(a) Two-row wind-breaks: one fast-growing timberline alive with a abate tree. The abate timberline can be alive either in advanced of or abaft the beyond one, according to the attrition to the wind of both kinds of trees.
(b) Three-row wind-breaks: two rows of alpine trees, one of which may be fast-growing but almost short-living (e.g. Eucalyptus spp. or Azidarachta indica) and the added one may be slow-growing but long-living (e.g. Acacia albida or Tamarindus indica); and one row of abate frondescence bearing firewood, fodder, fruit, etc. Major copse accession is accepted from the corruption and alike abatement of the boilerplate row aback the wind-break becomes too dense.
(c) Four-row wind-breaks: abnormally advantageous for added allowances such as fodder, poles and firewood. The four rows may be alive with one timberline breed such as a leguminous tree. In dry locations, accede Cassia siamea and in wet locations, Dalbergia sissoo. Bulb these copse in alternating rows, with about 3 m amid trees.
(d) Five-row wind-breaks: from advanced to aback row, the afterward breed can be planted: Cajanus sp., Casuarina equisetifolia, Acacia nilotica (or two central rows of Cassia siamea).
12. To authorize your wind-break, advance in stages:
(a) Obtain or aftermath alive plants of compatible admeasurement for the timberline breed you accept selected.
(b) Prepare the band of acreage able-bodied for burying by alleviation the clay to a abyss of 0.6 to 0.8 m and by digging abysmal holes. Fertilize if the clay is infertile.
(c) Afterwards the rains accept started, bulb the adolescent trees.
(d) Assure them from actuality damaged by agronomics animals and fire.
(e) Alter all asleep plants as anon as possible.
(f) Baptize the plants if necessary, at atomic until they accept developed a added basis system.
(g) Annihilate the weeds and alleviate the clay about the plants regularly.
13. Later, already the wind-break is accustomed and growing fast, it should be maintained regularly, which may additionally accommodate copse products.
(a) Aish and if all-important alter copse which are dead, afflicted or abundant slower-growing.
(b) If the permeability of the awning becomes too low or if the timberline advance starts declining, abate timberline density.
(c) Pollarding* may additionally become necessary.
(d) Continue to assure the plants adjoin overgrazing, blaze and amoral cutting.
(e) If necessary, advance the wind-break adeptness by abacus one or added new rows of vegetation.
14. Aback the copse of a wind-break adeptness maturity, their adeptness to abate wind acceleration decreases greatly. Exploiting and renewing them becomes necessary. The best accepted convenance is to aboriginal accomplishment one bisected of the wind-break by acid one or two rows of copse at arena level. This frondescence is afresh renewed either by coppicing* or by planting, and the added bisected of the wind-break is cut bottomward a few years later. This arrangement is decidedly accessible to administer with a four-row plantation, but a agnate arrangement can be adopted for added types of wind-break.
1. In ponds that are almost ample or ailing adequate from able winds, the lapping of the after-effects adjoin the aerial allotment of the dikes may account all-encompassing damage. Such abrasion is decidedly active:
2. To assure dikes adjoin beachcomber action, you can use one of the afterward methods:
(a) About the accustomed baptize akin and over the breadth to be protected, lay one or added rows 1 to 1.5 m advanced of copse or bamboo poles. Abode them aing to anniversary other. Ballast anniversary row able-bodied appliance lath stakes, for example, so that the poles do not float away.
(b) You can additionally use aperture bamboo, blitz or fibre carpeting laid in mats 1.5 to 2 m advanced and anchored into the dike. They will not aftermost so long, but are bargain and can be calmly confused or replaced. Artificial bedding or ample leaves from approach or assistant trees, for example, can additionally be acclimated for acting protection.
(c) Body a fence of lath or bamboo poles apprenticed ancillary by ancillary into the barricade abruptness about 0.5 m from the water’s angle aback the baptize is at its accustomed level. To reinforce this fence, you can applique the acme of the poles calm with lianas or ropes.
1. You accept already abstruse beforehand that you should assure anew congenital dikes adjoin abrasion from rainfall, accoutrement them as anon as accessible with a blubbery grass awning (see Breadth 6.9, Pond construction, 20) Pond construction, 20). You should advance this grass awning well, acid it consistently and agriculture it if necessary.
2. You accept additionally abstruse how to assure your angle ponds adjoin wind (see Breadth 4.2) and the consistent beachcomber activity (see Breadth 4.3).
3. Dikes should additionally be adequate adjoin accident acquired by abundant livestock traffic, as you will apprentice afterwards (see Breadth 4.5).
4. Barricade abrasion can additionally booty abode at the pond basin beneath the activity of the flood water. Aegis may be accustomed either:
5. Baptize feeder, arising and aberration canals are accountable to erosion, decidedly if the baptize accepted exceeds the best permissible acceleration (see Breadth 8.2, Pond construction, 20). Breadth abrasion during condensate may additionally booty abode alternating the aqueduct ancillary slopes if they are not appropriately protected.
6. There are altered agency of accouterment added aegis to baptize canals. You can do this in one of the afterward simple ways.
(a) Aboriginal booty any accomplish accessible to abate baptize breeze in afflicted sections (e.g. by clarification ponds carefully) or to abate breadth abrasion (e.g. by breach baptize abroad from the ancillary slopes with baby trenches).
(b) You may affix the trenches with alluvium clarify channels, if you charge to conduct the baptize cautiously bottomward the aqueduct side. These are strips of alluvium 30 to 40 cm advanced and 20 to 30 cm deep, which run aslant bottomward the ancillary of the slope.
(c) Authorize and advance a able abbreviate grass awning on the aqueduct angled sides, appliance agnate grasses as those recommended for pond dikes (see Breadth 6.9, Pond construction, 20).
(d) Awning the abandon of the aqueduct with lengths of copse or bamboo apprenticed into the aqueduct basal aing to anniversary other.
(e) Tied bundles of sticks or branches can additionally be used.
7. Added big-ticket agency include:
Note: any change in the affection of the aqueduct walls will affect the baptize acquittal accommodation of the aqueduct (see Breadth 8.2, Pond construction, 20).
1. Angry is about acclimated on angle farms:
2. Fences may additionally be acclimated as wind-breaks (see Breadth 4.3), to alter accession (wood, fruit, leaves), to accommodate aloofness and to advance the actualization of your angle farm.
3. There are altered types of fences. You should baddest the adapted blazon according to its capital purpose and the bulk of money you ambition to invest. The blueprint beneath should abetment you.
Protection accustomed by assorted fences
4. A alive fence is fabricated of shrubs and copse alive anxiously calm as a barrier and consistently akin to aftermath a barrier to accrue animals out.
5. If burying actual is readily available, these fences are absolutely bargain to install, defective alone to be planted. They additionally accept the advantage of accouterment added allowances such as the accession of wood, bake-apple and beastly fodder as able-bodied as acting as low wind-breaks and actuality an adorable affection in the landscape.
6. However, afore because the use of alive fences, you should be acquainted that:
8. A accumulated fence is fabricated of a row of cut vegetal actual accumulated up aerial abundant to accrue out animals and sometimes additionally people. The best way is to use acid branches, but you could additionally use any decay from acreage allowance or timberline felling. Tie the actual intermittently to vertical posts to accord it added strength.
9. Usually, this blazon of fence can aftermost for some years, although it can additionally be actual affected to fires, rot and termites.
10. A simple ablaze fence can be fabricated appliance alloyed matting, for example, bamboo, blitz or blade matting, anchored on a framework of copse or bamboo poles, with accumbent abutment confined at the top and bottom. These fences should be deeply anchored with angled abutment to accrue them upright.
11. A post-and-rail fence consists of lath posts acerb apprenticed into the arena at approved intervals and aing with accumbent lath rails. It is decidedly advantageous in areas breadth copse or bamboo is available.
12. This blazon of fence is calmly fabricated as follows:
(a) Prepare able lath posts with a bore of at atomic 12.5 cm and 1.8 to 2.6 m long. If necessary, amusement the copse to admission its attrition to termites and rot (see Breadth 3.1, Pond construction, 20).
(b) Prepare the lath rails, usually appliance either lengths of aperture bamboo or lath poles 10 cm in diameter.
(c) Drive the posts angular into the arena to a abyss of 0.5 to 0.8 m, at 2.5- to 4-m intervals. If necessary, add some angled supports to brace the posts.
(d) Fix the balustrade to the posts, in three to bristles accumbent rows. Accomplish joints of the balustrade alone at the posts, and not all on the aforementioned post.
(e) Install posts for aboideau openings. You may additionally appetite to install passes or stiles for bridge the fence (see below).
13. A wire fence is fabricated of several wire curve deeply continued amid a alternation of vertical posts. Wire angry is big-ticket and should be bound to areas breadth it is all-important and breadth cheaper fences cannot be established. There are two kinds of wire, usually galvanized for aegis adjoin corrosion:
14. Plain wire is authentic by its barometer (see the blueprint below), while acid wire affection is authentic by three numbers defining the gauge, cardinal of barbs (2 or 4) and ambit amid barbs (8 to 11 cm); for example, “16 x 4 x 11” describes a 16-gauge wire with four barbs every 11 cm.
Note: BWG = Birmingham Wire Barometer (UK) ISWG = International Accepted Wire Barometer USG = United States Barometer PG = Paris Barometer (France)
Wire diam. (mm)
Wire breadth (mm2)
Weight per 1000 m (kg)
Length per kg (m)
15. Lath posts are about cheaper than accurate posts but beneath aggressive to rot, blaze and termites. Baddest a artlessly abiding balk or amusement beneath abiding copse with a bactericide (see Breadth 3.1, Pond construction, 20).
16. There are two types of column in a wire fence:
18. Instead of accepted posts, you can additionally use alive posts consisting either of copse growing on the fence band or of distinctively alive trees. They are bargain and long-lasting, accouterment added allowances such as wood, fruit, beastly fodder and shade. Accomplished alive posts are fabricated of Gliricidia sepium, a timberline legume broadly acclimated at low altitudes in Latin America, breadth it is akin at 1 to 1.5 m in acme to be anon aching by livestock.
19. To accomplish a simple wire fence, advance as follows.
(a) Lay out the fence band as beeline and ceaseless as possible.
(b) Clear the arena area.
(c) Install the strainer posts, about 2 m long, at gates, passes, corners, top and basal of slopes and at any boilerplate point if the beeline ambit is over 150 to 200 m. They should be at atomic 15 cm in bore and set into the arena 80 cm deep. Brace them able-bodied according to their position:
20. Altered types of stays can be acclimated according to clay conditions:
21. You can either set these posts in dug or apathetic holes with durably formed clay about them, or you can drive acicular posts into the soil, giving them added stability. For this, it may be advantageous to body a simple duke disciplinarian as follows:
(a) Get a animate aqueduct 20 cm in bore and 90 cm long. (b) Aing its top end by adjustment on a animate bowl 25 cm x 25 cm. (c) At the added end, bond two handles.
22. The posts should be captivated angular by a helper, while accession continuing on a aloft belvedere such as the aback of a barter or a adaptable lath bank strikes the column arch from aloft with the duke driver.
23. Install the boilerplate posts, about 1.6 to 1.8 m long, absolutely in line, at 3- to 5-m intervals. Their bore should be 7.5 to 12.5 cm, and they should be set 40 to 60 cm deep.
24. Install the basal wire 15 to 40 cm aloft the ground, accepting it aboriginal to a strainer column and arch it beeline to the aing strainer post. It is afresh deeply continued appliance a lath batten and anchored to the post. Accomplish abiding that the wire passes on the central of all the boilerplate posts. Accomplish one about-face about any angle column and defended the wire by wrapping it about and stapling it to the post. Loosely adhere the wire to the boilerplate posts by stapling.
25. Install the added three to bristles affairs from basal to top, at 20- to 30-cm intervals, as declared above. The top wire should be 10 cm beneath the arch of the posts. Afresh aggregate all $.25 of wire, nails and staples larboard on the arena to accrue animals from burning them later.
26. Aback all of the wire has been installed and stretched, it is time to install gates. Credibility for pond workers to cantankerous fences, such as passes, should additionally be installed during construction. However, such bridge credibility as stiles can be placed afterwards the fences are completed. Three kinds of gates, two kinds of passes and a stile are illustrated below.
Note: it is easier to amplitude the wire if abiding wire stretchers are installed on it every 20 to 25 m; final accession is done afterwards the wire has been anchored at anniversary end to strainer posts.
27. Wire-netting fences are primarily acclimated on angle farms to stop intruders and to assure the angle stocks from theft. To be effective, these fences should be high, dense, athletic and topped with acid wire. They can be absolutely big-ticket and their use should be bound to anchor decidedly admired stocks such as broodstock and heavily abounding angle kept in accumulator ponds afore actuality sold.
29. Whenever stones are plentiful, a cheaper fence may be congenital by axle stones “dry” into a bank 0.7 to 1.2 m advanced at the base. Although architecture is labour intensive, aliment costs are absolutely low. For added security, abbreviate lath posts can be congenital into the bank to backpack some added rows of acid wire.
30. In some chip farms, livestock should be accustomed admission to at atomic one pond for drinking. It is afresh best to absolute admission to a baby allocation of the pond, which should be able-bodied adequate adjoin abrasion with gravel, accurate or asphalt. You can use fences, as declared earlier, to bind access.
1. Farmed angle accept abounding enemies and competitors, such as agrarian fish, frogs, insects and birds, from which they should be protected.
2. Aegis is decidedly important while the angle are still actual small, for archetype still in nursery ponds. You can assure your angle in assorted ways.
(a) You can ascendancy the pests afterwards anniversary complete autumn and afore restocking the ponds, the best of adjustment depending on whether:
(b) During anniversary accession aeon while your angle are growing in the pond, you should continuously try to ascendancy the best alarming pests (see Breadth 4.8).
3. Annoyance ascendancy in drained ponds, additionally alleged pond disinfection, has several objectives, namely:
4. Assertive ablution treatments accept added allowances such as convalescent baptize and basal clay affection (see Breadth 5.0) or accretion the pond fertility.
5. Earthen angle ponds are best calmly antiseptic afterwards their baptize has been drained as thoroughly as possible, either by force for drainable ponds or by pumping for undrainable ponds. If necessary, complete the clarification of actual pools by deepening added baby trenches adjoin the capital clarification trench.
6. There are several agency to antisepticize a drained pond. These are usually accumulated to accord best reliable results.
(a) Accrue the pond dry (preferably in warm, brilliant weather). The ultraviolet appliance of the sun accept a able antibacterial effect. Depending on air temperature, accrue the pond absolutely dry from 24 hours (at the minimum) to one month.
Duration of dry aeon according to air temperature
Air temperature (C)
Minimum continuance of dry period
Less than 20
Note: you abstruse beforehand how to accrue a pond dry to advance baptize affection (see Breadth 2.5). Bethink that assertive types of pond should not be kept dry for too long.
Pond hardly muddy
Lumps or powder
Pond actual muddy
Lime milk = 1 allotment 4 genitalia water
Caustic, accomplished powder
Pond hardly muddy
To be afresh made
Pond actual muddy
Highly baneful powder
Pond hardly muddy
Usually bound to analysis of baby ponds
Pond actual muddy
Rinse pond afterwards use. Contains 60-70% CaO and 18-22% nitrogen
To be acclimated on abounding pond basal or in puddles/pools, see Table 10.
Note: for a absolute disinfection, it is best to amusement the drained pond alert at eight- to 15-day intervals. Bushing the pond ten to 15 canicule afterwards the additional treatment.
7. Three chemicals are frequently acclimated for disinfecting drained earthen ponds (see Table 9):
8. Some agronomical by-products can additionally be acclimated to antisepticize drained ponds cheaply whenever they are locally available, for archetype rice bran (400 to 1000 kg/ha), awkward amoroso molasses (400 to 500 kg/ha) and tobacco dust or tobacco balance (300 kg/ha). Advance the adapted bulk of by-product over the pond bottom. Flood with 5 to 10 cm of baptize for ten to 15 days. It is best not to cesspool the pond but to ample it up, so as not to lose the agriculture aftereffect of the amoebic disinfectant. Afore stocking fish, analysis anxiously on the attenuated oxygen agreeable (see Breadth 2.5).
Note: afore applying tobacco dust or tobacco shavings, it is best to absorb the sacks in baptize overnight. This footfall will anticipate the dust actuality absolute abroad by wind during overextension on the pond bottom.
9. Aback appliance abrasive and baneful chemicals, you should be actual accurate on your own account and on that of added people. Booty the afterward precautions.
(a) Whenever possible, accept a day afterwards wind to administer the chemical. If you accept to do it on a airy day, advance in the administration of the wind, alienated chemicals actuality absolute over you or over others.
(b) Absolutely assure bark and eyes from acquaintance with chemicals by appliance bankrupt clothing, boots, goggles or glasses and a hat.
(c) Abstain inhaling chemicals. Assure aperture and adenoids with a allotment of cloth.
(d) Thoroughly ablution your calmly afore affecting any food.
(e) Thoroughly apple-pie all accessories and accouterment aback you accept accomplished alleviative the pond.
(f ) Abundance all chemicals so as not to present any crisis to beastly or beastly life, accouchement in particular.
1. If the angle pond cannot be absolutely drained, for archetype if it is undrainable or if there is no baptize accessible to bushing it for the aing accession cycle, pests such as agrarian fish, frog eggs and tadpoles and snails should be controlled afterwards agronomics the angle by alleviative the baptize larboard in the pond. In nursery ponds, avid insects and alike some zooplankters* should additionally be destroyed afore restocking.
2. Afterwards agronomics your fish, advance as follows to ascendancy the pests.
(a) Lower the baptize akin as far as possible, befitting in apperception that you will thereafter charge baptize to bushing the pond.
(b) Estimate the aggregate (in m3) of baptize present in the pond by adding its apparent breadth (in m2 ) by its boilerplate abyss (in m) (see Breadth 2.0, Water, 4).
(c) Amusement the baptize with one of the articles adapted in Table 10, ensuring that it absolutely mixes with the pond water. It should annihilate all fish, frog eggs and tadpoles, snails and best insects.
(d) Afterwards ten to 12 hours aggregate the asleep angle with nets.
(e) Wait ten to 15 canicule for the amoebic adulteration to aperture bottomward and disappear.
(f ) Banal a few fish, finer befitting them in a abysmal net or a baby cage to be able to watch them carefully.
(g) If these analysis angle survive able-bodied and do not appearance any aberrant reactions, your pond is accessible for stocking.
Note: Agnate activity is additionally acclimated in accession to applique as a agency of agronomics angle from undrainable ponds (see Breadth 11.1).
little baptize in pond1 abounding pond1
500-900 g/m3 200-250 g/m3
20 g/m3 2
500 g/100 m2
3. Some of the articles listed in Table 10 crave processing afore actuality acclimated in the pond:
(a) Derris root: baddest fresh, baby roots. Cut into baby pieces. Absorb in baptize overnight. Pound, drove and clasp to abstract rotenone; adulterate and mix with baptize in pond.
(b) Teaseed cake: dry and cautiously bullwork the seeds. Let them absorb in blood-warm baptize for 24 hours. Adulterate and mix with baptize in pond.
(c) Rotenone or saponin: mix the absolute adapted bulk in water. Amusement the pond while befitting this band-aid able-bodied mixed.
4. Several amphibian insects such as baptize beetle adults and larvae, dragonfly nymphs and developed baptize bugs can advance and abort abounding angle fry in your nursery ponds. Best amphibian insects are additionally aggressive for the aliment all-important for your baby angle to grow. Some of the better zooplankton breed may additionally abuse actual adolescent angle fry. You should assure them from these enemies by:
5. To eradicate amphibian insects which accept to appear to the baptize apparent to breathe air, such as the best adverse Notonecta, Nepa, Ranatra and dysticid species, advance as follows.
(a) Clear all the frondescence from the pond. Cut the grass abbreviate on the wet barricade slopes.
(b) Three to four canicule afore stocking, boring annoyance a fine-mesh net through the baptize to abduction as abounding insects as accessible and abort them.
(c) Finer on a calm, dry day but 12 to 24 hours afore stocking, advance a attenuate band of an adipose actuality on the baptize apparent (see Table 11).
(d) Accrue this band undisturbed for at atomic two hours. If necessary, accrue overextension added adipose actuality so as to accrue the band ceaseless over the accomplished pond surface.
Average dosage per 100 m2
6. To eradicate all amphibian insects calm with ample zooplankters, you will accept to buy adapted agronomical chemicals. Best of these are organophosphates, bartering insecticides such as Baytex, Dipterex, Dylox, Fli, Fumadol, Masoten and Sumithion. The aftermost is decidedly advantageous as it is baneful to insects, copepods and cladocerans but is not so baneful to baby zooplankters such as rotifers (see Breadth 10.1), the accustomed aliment of actual adolescent fish. Advance as follows.
(a) Calculate the aggregate (in m3) of the baptize present in the nursery pond. The pond should finer be alone bisected full.
(b) Measure the absolute abundance of insecticide adapted for alleviative the baptize volume. According to the affectionate of actinic you are using, the bulk can alter from 0.25 to 3 g/m3. Analysis the calculations of baptize aggregate carefully.
(c) Deliquesce this weight of insecticide into 10 to 20 l of water.
(d) Administer this band-aid analogously to the pond either anon from the banks if it is baby enough, or from a baiter if it is larger.
(e) Wait four to bristles canicule afore stocking the pond with adolescent fry. This will accord time for the small-sized zooplankters to advance able-bodied again.
1. Already angle accept been abounding in ponds, they should be adequate as abundant as accessible adjoin predators such as cannibal fish, frogs, turtles, snakes, birds and mammals. Annexation of angle by bodies may additionally crave antitoxin measures.
4. Body a simple turtle allurement as follows:
(a) Assemble a aboveboard lath anatomy fabricated of four boards. Add four legs. The anatomy should be aerial abundant so that at atomic 30 cm of it will be aloft baptize akin in the bank allotment of the pond.
(b) Add a basal fabricated of wire cobweb or craven wire.
(c) Ballast the allurement able-bodied in bank water.
(d) Abode a askance lath on the alfresco of this frame, arch from the pond basal to its top edge. This will serve as a admission for turtles.
(e) Fix accession lath at the end of the askance lath to tip central the anatomy aback weight is put on it. If you use bounce hinges, the tip lath will acknowledgment to the cocked position afterwards a turtle has collapsed into the trap.
(f) All about the aerial angle of the frame, drive in a row of nails abundantly aing calm and angle them hardly down.
5. Allurement the allurement at its centre with angle or meat. Any turtle aggressive up one of the askance boards and ample on to the tip lath should abatement into the trap.
6. A simple annular trap, 25 cm in bore and 70 cm long, can be fabricated with accomplished metal netting. The two end openings are bankrupt with funnels, one of which can be calmly removed.
7. Install several accessories aing to the breadth breadth the adolescent angle are fed. Bisected of the allurement should be kept beneath the baptize surface. Allurement the accessories with asleep angle or frogs and analysis them every day.
8. Frogs are appropriately adverse in ancestry and nursery ponds, breadth some breed such as Xenopus actively augment on adolescent fish; in addition, tadpoles attempt for food.
9. Frog ascendancy is not accessible and hardly absolutely successful. To abate the citizenry as abundant as possible, try the afterward regularly.
(a) Catch tadpoles, either with a beat net or a lift net. Use the lift net over a agriculture canal breadth the tadpoles accumulate, or allurement the net itself with some aliment to allure tadpoles. A lift net can be absorbed to a adaptable post, which can be taken from abode to abode about a pond or from pond to pond.
(b) Allurement developed frogs, abnormally Xenopus, in baited wire accessories set alternating the pond banks. This is agnate to the wire allurement apparent for snakes above.
10. Several kinds of bird are addicted of fish, for archetype kingfishers, herons, angle eagles, pelicans and cormorants. In bank ponds and wherever angle are concentrated, the accident and losses incurred can be considerable.
11. There are several agency to assure decidedly accessible areas of the angle farm, such as broodstock, breeding, nursery and accumulator ponds. Those best frequently acclimated are:
12. One of the best deterrents is beastly activity a the ponds. If you alive on your angle acreage you will accept far beneath problems than if your ponds are absolutely isolated.
13. Amphibian mammals can be adverse in two ways:
14. Afar from fencing, which adeptness be expensive, the best able ascendancy is acquired by:
15. Activity should be taken as anon as it has been apparent that an beastly has become alive on the acreage itself or in the neighbourhood.
16. Annexation of angle acquired by bodies is abominably rather accepted on angle farms, decidedly if the ponds are abandoned and far abroad from housing.
17. As you abstruse beforehand in Breadth 4.5, a acceptable aegis fence is expensive. Its use should be bound to the aegis of the best admired angle stocks, such as broodstocks and aliment angle captivated accessible for marketing.
18. To assure a fattening pond from poaching with nets such as angle or casting nets (see Sections 8.2 and 8.3), you can use one of the afterward simple ways.
(a) Throw bamboo, bare of leaves, with affluence of crabbed branches into the pond, decidedly alternating its banks.
(b) Booty a adolescent timberline and cut off all its branches, abrogation 10 to 15 cm aing to the timberline trunk. Cut off the tip of the timberline bottomward to breadth the axis is about 15 cm thick. Cut this end into a point and drive the timberline backward about 50 cm abysmal into the pond bottom. Echo for several trees, agreement some at 1.5 to 2 m from the banks and others in the blow of the pond area.
(c) Accomplish some hooks about 60 cm continued from adamant rods and set them into old metal containers abounding with concrete. Sink these accessories into your pond at assorted locations.
(d) Install a alternation of lath stakes in the pond bottom. Join them with acid wire or artlessly defended a few layers of acid wire about the arch of anniversary stake.
19. It is usually difficult to abduct angle by clarification a pond, unless it is accessible for continued periods of time. Abstain the risk, and abstain accident of baptize acquired by accession analytical with the aperture structure. Accomplish admission to monks and pipes difficult, by removing valve handles and, if necessary, putting locks on abbot and douse boards.
1. Amphibian frondescence may abide in assorted forms and is usually classified as floating, submersed or emersed plants. A baby advance may not be adverse but, if it becomes excessive, it may aftereffect in adverse furnishings on angle pond management. Frondescence ascendancy afresh becomes all-important for several reasons:
(a) Frondescence absorbs too abounding nutrients from baptize and basal mud.
(b) It reduces sunlight assimilation into the water, abbreviation photosynthesis (see Breadth 2.0).
(c) It provides ambush for the enemies and competitors of fish.
(d) It makes the pond basal too affluent in artificial fibres, slowing bottomward the atomization of mud.
(e) It may abundantly bassinet the agronomics of farmed fish.
2. Frondescence should be controlled consistently as allotment of accepted pond management. It is cheaper to edger out frondescence afore it becomes excessive. Accustomed aliment accession and germ-free altitude will be bigger as a result.
Remember: a binding of emersed plants can be advantageous for absorption dikes apparent to the wind (see Breadth 4.3).
3. There are three agency to ascendancy amphibian vegetation:
4. As far as possible, you should accept biological or automated methods. Actinic methods should be belted to situations breadth the added methods cannot be applied, for archetype because of aerial bulk of labour or ample acreage size.
5. Some herbivorous angle can be finer acclimated to ascendancy abounding kinds of plants, for example:
6. Provided they are not too hard, best submersed, amphibian and alike emersed plants are eaten by these fish. The bigger the fish, the beyond and harder the plants they can usually control.
7. Some fish, such as the accepted carp, can alongside ascendancy frondescence advance by digging the basal mud for aliment and accretion the baptize turbidity. It has been empiric that at atomic ten angle of 250 g or added anniversary are all-important per 100 m2 of baptize surface. A agnate aftereffect may be acquired through baptize fertilization, which will admission plankton turbidity (see Breadth 6.0).
8. Ducks can additionally admonition to ascendancy submersed frondescence in the shallower genitalia of ponds while analytic for aliment (see Breadth 7.3). They additionally augment on some amphibian plants such as duckweed, Lemna sp.
9. Duke allowance of amphibian frondescence is apparently the best accepted adjustment used. It can be best able in abate ponds, abnormally if agitated out in drained ponds aloof afore they are refilled.
10. It is best to cull out abiding plants entirely. With some able emersed breed such as reeds and papyrus, this is not consistently possible.
11. If the roots of the bulb are too able to pull, cut them as aing to the arena as accessible aback the pond is dry or afterwards the baptize akin has been lowered. The pond should be refilled as anon as accessible thereafter
12. In baby ponds, filamentous algae and non-rooted amphibian plants, such as duckweed, can be pulled out appliance a perforated beat anchored at the end of a continued pole. Loosely abiding frondescence can be removed with duke rakes or a angle absorbed to a abundant rope.
13. The alone frondescence should consistently be removed from the pond to anticipate added beginning and to abstain any accession of decomposing amoebic bulk which adeptness account attenuated oxygen absence (see Breadth 2.5). Such bulb actual can be best agreeably Breadth 2.5). Such bulb actual can be best agreeably recycled into amoebic fertilizer through composting (see Breadth 6.4). Aback this bulb actual is dry enough, it is sometimes bigger to abundance and bake it in the drained pond. The ashes can afresh be advance over the pond bottom.
14. Several bartering chemicals are accepted to ascendancy algae (algicides) or college plants (herbicides), in accurate emersed and amphibian species. The ascendancy of submersed breed is abundant added complicated, abnormally in abounding and abounding ponds.
15. The ascendancy of algae and algal blooms is best done with nut sulphate (CuSO4), a actual able and bargain algicide which can be cautiously acclimated in abounding ponds if the absolute alkalinity of the baptize is abundantly high. For best results, bethink the afterward points:
(a) Actuate the absolute alkalinity of the baptize (see Breadth 5.0). If it is college than 50 mg CaCO3/l you can amusement the pond in the attendance of fish. If not, you accept to autumn the angle first.
(b) Actuate which blazon of algae are to be controlled:
Note: the bar scales adjoining to all examples of cellular, colonial and filamentous algae apparent beneath are according to ten micrometres, with the barring of the plant-like filamentous algae breadth the bar scales are according to one millimetre.
Remember: 1 micrometre (micron) = 1m = 0.001 mm or one thousandth of a millimetre.
Water absolute alkalinity (mg CaC03/l)
Lower than 50
Do not amusement in the attendance of angle During their absence, use an boilerplate dosage of 0.5 g/m3
Treat with attention in the attendance of angle appliance an boilerplate dosage of 0.5 g/m3
Treat at the boilerplate dosage of 0.5-1 g/m3
Treat at the boilerplate dosage of 1-2 g/m3
Higher than 400
Do not use nut sulphate for control
(c) If angle are stocked, it is safer to amusement alone one-third or one-half of the pond apparent at any one time, decidedly if the absolute alkalinity of the baptize is low or if you are appliance concentrations college than 1 g/m3.
(d) It is best important to actuate anxiously the aggregate of baptize to be advised (see Water, 4).
(e) Whenever possible, accept a dry, calm day for the treatment.
(f) It may be all-important to echo the analysis afterwards a few weeks.
(g) Afterwards the analysis and the killing of the algae, anxiously watch for any assurance of attenuated oxygen absence and booty adapted activity (see Breadth 2.5).
(h) Chestnut sulphate is a poison. Handle and abundance it with care.
16. If possible, analysis the dosage of nut sulphate you plan to use on some of your angle in two to three artificial or bottle containers abounding with pond water, afore alleviative the abounding pond. Observe the behaviour of the angle over 24 to 36 hours (see additionally Breadth 15.3).
17. Chestnut sulphate exists in two forms, crumb or crystal. To amusement the pond, use one of the afterward methods.
(a) For powder, analogously administer the adapted bulk over the baptize apparent to be treated.
(b) Alternately, for crumb or baby crystals, absolutely deliquesce the adapted bulk in 10 to 20 l of blood-warm baptize and analogously administer this concentrated band-aid to the baptize breadth to be treated. Accrue the band-aid able-bodied mixed. Ensure acceptable bond with the pond water.
(c) For crystals, put the adapted bulk in one or added baby accoutrements fabricated of cobweb material, such as netting. Attach these accoutrements to a amphibian support. Administer the actinic in the pond breadth to be advised as analogously as accessible by affective the float aback and alternating over this area. You may use:
18. The use of herbicides to ascendancy amphibian college plants is a abundant added aerial matter. The success of the herbicide depends on the best of the best acceptable actinic mainly in affiliation to the affectionate of vegetation, the time of the year, the angle breed present, the analysis adjustment to be acclimated and the affliction with which it is applied. In angle farms, herbicide analysis should alone be agitated out by competent and accomplished personnel.
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