Sales (products put on the market) and accumulating (waste collected) abstracts for carriageable batteries and accumulators for alone European countries and totals for the EU from 2009 to 2016 are presented in Table 1. In 2016, about 214 000 tonnes of carriageable batteries and accumulators were put on the bazaar (sales) in the EU-28, while about 93 000 tonnes of decay carriageable batteries and accumulators were collected. Thus, the abstracts suggests that over alert the bulk of batteries were put on the bazaar than were collected.
Sales abstracts alter broadly beyond the EU Member States, from about 100 tonnes in Malta to added than 40 000 tonnes in Germany. Overall, country-specific sales abstracts has remained almost abiding (e.g. Germany) over the aeon from 2009 to 2016, with some Member States hardly accretion (e.g. Austria) and a few others hardly abbreviating amounts (e.g. Italy).
The abstracts announce that accumulating of decay carriageable batteries and accumulators is appreciably lower than sales: from beneath than 40 tonnes in Malta (about one third of sales) to about 20 000 tonnes (less than bisected of sales) in Germany in 2016. However, accumulating abstracts in best countries added steadily (e.g. Italy, France and Hungary).
Figure 1 shows the development of the accumulating and auction of carriageable batteries and accumulators in the EU. Sales accept remained almost stable: a minimum of about 206 000 tonnes in 2013 and a best of about 220 000 tonnes in 2010. A actual abstinent access from the 2013 minimum occurred in 2014 and 2015. In contrast, accumulating of decay batteries and accumulators in the EU has added continuously aback 2009. Starting from about 54 000 tonnes in 2009, accumulating added by over 70 % to about 93 000 tonnes in 2016.
The Batteries Directive (see Abstracts sources) defines the targets for the accumulating ante of carriageable batteries and accumulators, which were 25 % in 2012, ascent to 45 % in 2016. In 2016, 13 EU Member States did not ability the 45 % accumulating amount ambition (see Table 2). Of these, 8 countries appear accumulating ante lower than 45 % and 5 countries did not abode a accumulating rate. Thus, 15 Member States accomplished the 45 % target.
Collection ante are affected based on the sales and accumulating abstracts in Table 1. The adding takes into appliance a assimilation time of carriageable batteries in their applications.
Due to the advanced ambit of batteries that abide and the capricious basic metals of which they are made, there are specific recycling processes for anniversary array type. In this account the Batteries Directive differentiates amid lead-acid batteries, Ni-Cd batteries (nickel-cadmium) and added batteries.
In adverse to sales and accumulating data, for recycling of batteries and accumulators no acumen is fabricated amid carriageable and automated / automotive batteries; it is not accessible to actuate the blazon of batteries already they are alien to the recycling facility. Consequently, amounts of decay batteries and accumulators entering the recycling action are abundant college than sales and accumulating data, which accommodate carriageable batteries and accumulators only, see Table 1 or Table 3.
The aberration amid sales and accumulating of carriageable batteries and recycling of lead-acid batteries is decidedly striking. For example, the abstracts announce that about 46 000 tonnes of carriageable batteries and accumulators were put on auction in Germany in 2016, while about 207 000 tonnes of lead-acid batteries (input fractions to recycling) entered the recycling arrangement in Germany in 2016. A agnate bearings is mirrored in all European countries. This suggests that the lead-acid batteries for recycling are predominantly from the automotive sector.
Recycling efficiencies for lead-acid batteries are presented in Figure 2 for advertence years 2012 and 2016. In general, about all countries met the ambition of 65 % recycling ability in the advertence years from 2012 to 2016 (except Lithuania, abridged data). Recycling efficiencies of lead-acid batteries for a all-inclusive majority of countries were aloft 75 % in 2016. Recycling efficiencies do not affectation a bright trend for the country-specific abstracts but alter for the aeon 2012 to 2016.
Recycling efficiencies for Ni-Cd batteries are presented in Figure 3. Best advertisement countries accomplished the ability ambition of 75 %, with distinct exceptions in 2013, 2014 and 2016. The recycling efficiencies are mostly amid 75 % and 85 %. Agnate to recycling efficiencies of lead-acid batteries, there is no arresting trend for the country-specific data; recycling efficiencies for Ni-Cd batteries alter for the aeon 2012 to 2016.
The recycling ability ambition of 50 % for added batteries was met by all advertisement countries in 2015 and 2016 (see Figure 4). In antecedent years, alone a few countries bootless to ability the 50 % ambition (e.g. Sweden and Lithuania). The ambit of recycling efficiencies of added batteries is abundant beyond than for lead-acid and Ni-Cd batteries: from 50 % to about 80 % for best countries. Already again, recycling efficiencies for alone countries alter decidedly from 2012 to 2016 and no all-embracing trend is visible.
No quantitative targets for the ante of recycled agreeable of advance in lead-acid batteries and cadmium in Ni-Cd batteries are accustomed in the Batteries Directive. However, the Directive stipulates that the recycling of the advance and the cadmium agreeable shall be done to the accomplished technically achievable amount while alienated boundless costs. Advertisement of ante of recycled capacity took abode for the aboriginal time for advertence year 2014.
Country specific after-effects for the recycled advance agreeable of lead-acid batteries are presented in Figure 5 for 2014 and 2016. Almost all ante of recycled advance agreeable appear by countries are amid 85 % and 100 %. Based on country-specific abstracts for 2016, the archetypal advance agreeable in lead-acid batteries was estimated to be in a ambit amid 58 % and 79 %.
Rates of recycled cadmium agreeable of Ni-Cd batteries (see Figure 6) are about 99 % or 100 % with some exceptions and appropriately all-embracing college than the ante for advance in lead-acid batteries. The cadmium agreeable in Ni-Cd batteries is abundant lower than the advance agreeable in lead-acid batteries. Archetypal cadmium agreeable amid 6 % and 25 % was affected based on the countries’ data.
The appear abstracts are usually accessible in Eurostat’s database about 21 months afterwards the end of the advertence year. Advertisement started in 2012 and included advertence years aback to 2009.
The assay focuses on the EU-28 in 2014 as abstracts on batteries are accessible for all accepted EU Member States with the barring of Ireland, Greece, Cyprus and Romania. For the adding of the EU accumulated of 2014, abstracts were taken from the latest accessible year for those countries.
For the purposes of this Directive, the afterward definitions shall apply:
(1) Array or accumulator agency any antecedent of electrical activity generated by absolute about-face of actinic activity and consisting of one or added primary array beef (non-rechargeable) or consisting of one or added accessory array beef (rechargeable);
(2) Carriageable array or accumulator agency any battery, on cell, array backpack or accumulator that:
(3) Automotive array or accumulator agency any array or accumulator acclimated for automotive starter, lighting or agitation power;
(4) Automated array or accumulator agency any array or accumulator advised for alone automated or able uses or acclimated in any blazon of electric vehicle;
(5) Decay array or accumulator agency any array or accumulator which is decay aural the acceptation of Commodity 1(1)(a) of Directive 2006/12/EC;
(6) Annual sales of carriageable batteries and accumulators to end-users should be bidding as the weight of the carriageable batteries and accumulators placed on the bazaar in the area of the Member State in the year concerned, excluding any carriageable batteries and accumulators that accept larboard the area of that Member State in that year afore actuality awash to end-users;
(7) Placing on the bazaar agency bartering or authoritative available, whether in acknowledgment for acquittal or chargeless of charge, to a third affair aural the Community and includes acceptation into the community area of the Community;
(8) Accumulating amount means, for a accustomed Member State in a accustomed agenda year, the allotment acquired by adding the weight of decay carriageable batteries and accumulators calm in accordance with Commodity 8(1) of this Directive or with Directive 2002/96/EC in that agenda year, by the boilerplate weight of carriageable batteries and accumulators that producers either advertise anon to end-users or bear to third parties in adjustment to advertise them to end-users in that Member State during that agenda year and the above-mentioned two agenda years;
(9) Recycling ability of a recycling action agency the arrangement acquired by adding the accumulation of achievement fractions accounting for recycling by the accumulation of the decay batteries and accumulators ascribe atom bidding as a percentage.
The advice and abstracts presented in this commodity axis from the advertisement obligations in the Directive 2006/66/EC on carriageable batteries and accumulators (subsequently alleged Batteries Directive) and the Commission Regulation (EU) No 493/2012, which lay bottomward rules on ecology batteries and accumulators. The Batteries Directive sets accumulating targets for carriageable batteries and accumulators and recycling targets for all batteries and accumulators, differentiated by type.
Reliable and commensurable abstracts on the quantities of batteries and accumulators is all-important for ecology whether the objectives of the Batteries Directive accept been achieved. The Directive distinguishes between:
Member States abode abstracts on the auction and accumulating of carriageable batteries and accumulators and on the recycling of all batteries and accumulators. With attention to recycling, the Batteries Directive differentiates amid the afterward three array types:
The Batteries Directive defines targets for the recycling efficiencies of batteries and accumulators. Recycling efficiencies abode the recycling action alone and do not accede the ability of the accumulating which is covered by the above accumulating ambition for carriageable batteries and accumulators.
According to Commodity 12 (4) of the Directive and in Annex III (Part B: Recycling), recycling processes shall accomplish the afterward minimum recycling efficiencies by no after than 26 September 2011:
Commission Regulation (EU) No 493/2012 specifies in Commodity 2 (3): ‘recycling efficiency’ of a recycling action agency the arrangement acquired by adding the accumulation of achievement fractions accounting for recycling by the accumulation of the decay batteries and accumulators ascribe atom bidding as a allotment
Starting with the advertence year 2014, recycling efficiencies accept to be affected according to Commission Regulation (EU) No 493/2012. Details are accustomed in Annexes I, IV, V and VI and in the Guidelines on the appliance of this Commission Regulation.
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