by A. Zaid and P. KleinDate Assembly Support Programme
This affiliate highlights, in detail, the assorted technical accomplish bare to ensure the able enactment of a date approach acreage and its management.
It is account advertence that aback authentic advice was accessible to the authors from their own acquaintance in Namibia (Southern Hemisphere), it seemed adapted to abject the abstruse agenda on this region (Figure 89). Nnorthern Hemisphere readers could accumulate the aberration in seasonal times in apperception (i.e. fl owering is during July/August in the Southern Hemisphere and February/March in the arctic hemisphere; bake-apple maturation and harvesting are during September/October in the Nnorthern Hemisphere and during February/March in the southern hemisphere).
– Acquire the appropriate bulk of microsprayer supports (at a bulk of 3 per plant);
– Adapt the appropriate bulk of aegis units fabricated of wire cobweb and a adumbration net (1 per plant). No plant should be buried if no aegis assemblage is available;
– Bulb wind breach (at atomic one year in advance); use Beef copse (Casaurina cunninghummiana or Casuarina glauca) which is characterised by accelerated growth, aerial akin of drought, and alkali tolerance.
– Debusing and levelling;
– Layout of curve and rows;
– Ripping (± 1.2 m) in both admonition on the rows;
– Install the irrigation arrangement (secondary and tertiary pipelines only);
– Mark the exact position of plants;
– Dig holes (0.6 m³), if clay has been cantankerous ripped or 1 m³ if clay was not ripped, and leave accessible till end of December;
– Try to localise old, able-bodied matured admixture or any added amoebic actual (i.e. maize hay, aureate straw, etc.) that will be acclimated the aing month.
– Place the irrigation supports (3 per plant) and affix the micro-jets (or drippers). The irrigation agenda is presented in affiliate VII;
– Mix the able-bodied accomplished admixture (3 kg per plant), adhesive (if needed) and NPK fertilisers with the clay removed from the hole;
– Put the alloyed clay aback in the hole;
– Alpha the irrigation aeon 2 to 3 times to acquiesce clay to settle. The atomization of admixture will be initiated. When adhesive is applied, a abbreviate appellation leaching programme should be followed before planting;
– Abundant time (4 to 6 weeks) should be accustomed afore burying to abstain the nitrogen abrogating aftereffect period.
Fertilisation at planting:
The afterward amounts are to be acclimated per planting hole:
– 3 kg of old kraal admixture (± 3 spades full);- 2 kg of adhesive (if necessary);- 700 g double superphosphate;- 500 g potassium chloride (or 625 g potassium sulphate); and- 0.25 kg ammonium sulphate (and addition 0.25 kg six weeks later).
– Tissue ability plants accept been in the nursery for the accomplished 8 to 12 months (depending on variety, their aboriginal admeasurement at accession from the laboratory, and on the affliction provided by the farmer). The plants should accept been able-bodied anhydrous (twice per anniversary during winter and 3 times per anniversary during summer; a aing ecology is to be ensured in case the substrate is fabricated of bark), and fertilised according to the afterward programme: Mix 5 litre of SeaGro (5.5 %, 0.75 %, and 1.6 % of N,P,K,respectively) with 1,000 litres of baptize and administer at 140 ml per plant. Echo already every two weeks until clearing into the fi eld. For activated purposes, the plants could be anhydrous with the band-aid by replacing a accustomed irrigation schedule;
– Select your burying actual at the nursery; alone plants with at atomic 4 pinnae leaves are to be crude in the fi eld;
– Inspect your plants and accomplish abiding they are chargeless of diseases and pests. In the approaching plantation, use the Integrated Pest Administration Approach (manual or automated weeding, ablaze traps, etc.);
– Review and ensure the identifi cation of anniversary plant; area altered varieties are actuality planted, use altered colour labelling for anniversary variety;
– Anniversary block, row and band is to be labelled. A map of the acreage (variety composition) is to be kept in the offi ce (and/or at home).
February and March are the best months for burying (no wind, no acute temperatures and the boilerplate clamminess is about 40 %). Let us suppose that our burying date is March15:
– Addition irrigation afore burying is advised. Irrigate to fi eld baptize capacity;
– Recommended agreement is 10 × 8 (10 m amid rows and 8 amid award in a row); 125 award per one hectare will be the burying density;
– Burying should be done aboriginal in the morning to abstain clearing stress, and irrigation should be done immediately afterwards transplanting;
– Accoutrements should be cut from the basal and progressively removed upwards, while the clay is put about the palm’s substrate (to abstain roots damage); all adulterated or damaged roots are to be pruned;
– The blade abject of the approach should be acutely out of the apparent of the soil; burying charge be to the abyss of the plant’s greatest diameter;
– A basin of 1.5 to 1.8 m in bore and 20 to 30 cm abysmal is to be congenital for anniversary palm. Hay or aureate harbinger is to be used for mulching;
– Irrigation aeon depends on the location. However, we acclaim (from burying till end of August) 2 hours per aeon and alert a week. From September till March the aing year it should be added to 3 cycles per anniversary and 2 hours anniversary cycle. This irrigation calendar supposes the use of three drippers or microjets per approach at a bulk of 32 litre/hour each. The approach will appropriately accept 96 litres per hour.
– At all times, the clay a the newly buried approach should be kept clammy through ablaze and frequent irrigation;
– The irrigation aeon is to be monitored (use tensiometers if possible), and common check-ups are capital to ensure the able activity of microjets or drippers;
– No blade pruning is to be practised during the aboriginal two years (only leaves that blow the arena could be removed);
– The appropriate cardinal of macho award (5 for anniversary ha) are to be buried alone in one block, finer not in a airy atom and aing to the pollen workshop;
– Weeding is to be appropriately implemented;
– Aing year March: if bare administer 5 kg of adhesive per palm.
– April 15 (4 weeks afterwards the burying date): administer 250 g potassium chloride per palm;- April 25: administer if bare 2 kg of adhesive per palm;- Apri 30 (six weeks afterwards the burying date): administer 250 g ammonium sulphate per palm.
– May 15: administer the additional 250 g potassium chloride per palm;- End of May: appraise your adaptation bulk (should be at atomic 95%).
– June 15 (six weeks interval): administer the second 250 g ammonium sulphate per palm;
– Already the aboriginal year afterwards burying is over, a fertilisation programme is to be activated till the aboriginal fl owering year (year 4 or 5 depending on variety, area and provided care). Abounding detail about the fertilisation programme can be begin in Affiliate VI.
– No offshoots should be larboard on a palm; they must be removed at an aboriginal date to ensure active advance and aboriginal fruit production. Abatement of offshoots should be done alert per year (July and December). Accomplish abiding that the adapter point amid the adjunct and the bulb mother is advised with nut oxychlorid (use DEMIL DEX at 500 g in 25 l of PVA paint).
– Afterwards 4 years, the agriculturalist charge apparatus the following abstruse calendar.
– Immediately afterwards harvest, but no afterwards than aboriginal May, the charwoman of the award charge be initiated. Old fruitstalks, leaves affecting the arena and adolescent offshoots are to be removed aback they accent the mother palm, account its abatement and abatement bake-apple yield. No absolute burying of these offshoots should be practised; they charge be abiding in the nursery for at atomic one year;
– Abatement of spines from about 20 to 25 alfresco leaves and charwoman of the award to adapt for pollination;
– Leaves with affection of diseases charge to be removed and burned;
– Administer fertilisation on the 1st of April;
– Administer potassium chloride fertilisation on the 15th of April;
– Administer the ammonium sulphate fertilisation (in April and in May);
– If leaching is required, it charge be practised afore the alpha of the account fertilisation;
– The palm’s basin is to be baddest and mulched; and
– Attend to the accustomed maintenance practices such as analysis of all baptize credibility (drippers, microjets, etc.), mulching, weeding, adjustment of basins, etc.
– Administer the ammonium sulphate fertilisation;
– If macho flowers alpha production, autumn the pollen and dry it;
– Monitor a ascendancy programme against pests and diseases (avoid the all-encompassing use of chemicals and abject your approach on Integrated Pest Management; chiral or automated weeding, ablaze traps, phenomone traps, abatement of afflicted leaves, etc.).
– Pollination division starts and will continue until the end of August, sometimes until the end of September;
– An developed macho approach produces amid 500 to 1,000 g of pollen (an boilerplate of 700 g), which is abundant for pollinating 47 changeable palms; It is bright that 15 to 20 g of pollen is the appropriate bulk of pollen to be acclimated per changeable palm; about 2 kg of pollen are bare per hectare.
– Germination and clamminess tests of stored pollen could be accomplished at any acceptable amid accurate facility; if this is not accessible try to use alone beginning pollen;
– Use alloyed pollen (old and fresh); on circadian basis, the pollen (just the abundance to be used) is to be alloyed with non- ambrosial automated crumb (or aureate fl ower) at a bulk of 30 to 50 percent depending on varieties.
– Medjool alone requires a low abundance of pollen (10 % pollen/talc arrangement = 1:g);
– Alone accomplished labourers should be acclimated for pollination;
– Pollination should alone be practised amid 10:00 in the morning and 15:00 in the afternoon (not before, nor after). A minimum temperature of 18°C is to be respected;
– If it rains aural 2 to 3 canicule afterwards pollination, echo the pollination;
– To pollinate, the changeable spathes are to be acclaim opened afterwards they alpha cracking; cover-sheaths will be removed with no accident to the central fl owers;
– The top 1/3 of the changeable inflorescence should be removed (1st thinning); do not clasp the inflorescences while doing this.
– Pollination should be activated at least alert with 2 to 3- day intervals (to ensure a acceptable bake-apple set);
– In places area low temperatures are accustomed during the pollination season, ability cardboard accoutrements are to be acclimated to cover the pollinated infl orescence. Several canicule afterwards (8 to 10), the accoutrements charge be removed.
– A slight blade pruning could additionally be practised depending on array and on the palm’s canopy;
– Accomplish abiding that the approaching continued bloom is not abashed by surrounding leaves;
– Administer the Maxi-Fos fertilisation on the 1st of July;
– Administer the ammonium sulphate fertilisation on the 7th of July.
– Administer the potassium chloride on the 15th of July.
– Continue pollination;
– Two weeks afterwards the aftermost pollination, ensure a access in anniversary approach and beneath anniversary infl ores-cence in adjustment to assess the bake-apple set and to position (if a blade or two needs to be cut, it charge be done at this time); this is to anticipate wind/leaf accident on the fruits;
– Alpha business acquaintance with abeyant date traders;
– Ensure the availability of packing material;
– Initiate logistical planning (storage, transport, etc.);
– Administer the ammonium sulphate fertilisation.
Six to eight weeks afterwards the aboriginal pollination, alpha the following:
– Agglomeration removal: Limit the cardinal of bake-apple bunches per approach to the accustomed norms depending on the palm’s age and vigour. Use the formula: an boilerplate of 10 leaves per bunch. The bunches kept are the ones with the nice bake-apple set and able-bodied equilibrated about the approach (equally distributed about the crown). One bake-apple agglomeration during aboriginal year of production, 2 bunches the additional year, and so on.
– Agglomeration thinning: Thin from the inside (± 1/3) but do not cut too aing to the actual central spikelets; leave 5 to 6 cm to abstain dehydration and fungal attack. Abrasion is array abased and should be done alone afterwards absolute appraisal of the bake-apple set;
– The aloft abrasion techniques should consistently advance to the afterward bake-apple distribution:
* Barhee: 45 to 50 spikelets per bunch and 20 to 25 fruits per spikelet. The cardinal of fruits per agglomeration will alter from 900 to 1,250; with an boilerplate of 15 g per fruit, the agglomeration weight will alter from 13.50 kg to 18.75 kg.
* Medjool: 30 spikelets per agglomeration and 10 fruits per spikelet. The cardinal of fruits per agglomeration should be about 300; with an boilerplate bake-apple weight of 20 g (as a semi-dry bake-apple from 18 to 28 g), the bunch weight will about be 6 kg.
– Accession and acknowledging the bunches: Immediately, afterwards agglomeration abrasion is fi nished at the accomplished plantation, the operation of accession and absorbed is to be practised. Be accurate to gently position the agglomeration in adjustment not to breach the fruitstalk (use both hands). Each bake-apple agglomeration should be accurate (to abstain its approaching breakage) by the use of two ropes absorbed to the aerial and the lower leaf.
Note that all the aloft practises (pollination, thinning, etc.) are labour accelerated (170 working days/year/hectare), and charge alone be handled by accomplished labour. It is necessary to amusement the fl ower/inflorescence with affliction from pollination till Hababouk stage.
– Administer ammonium sulphate fertilisation.
– Administer the Maxi-Fos fertilisation on the 1st of October;
– Administer the ammonium sulphate fertilisation for October and November;
– All bunches are to be covered with net accoutrements (80 %) to assure the fruits from birds, wasps and insects. This period should accord to the access of fruits from Kimri to Khalal. Fruits at this date are starting to about-face chicken in colour (case of Barhee variety) and the nets are to be larboard on the bunches till bake-apple ripening and harvesting. This aegis operation charge be completed throughout the accomplished acreage before the Rutab date is reached.
– Observe irrigation programme;- Administer the Maxi-Fos fertilisation on the 1st of January;- Administer the potassium chloride fertilisation on the 15th of January.
– If necessary, all broiled and bisected broiled leaves could be pruned during February to abstain the Rutab fruits from accident acquired by these leaves during airy situations. It additionally helps the harvesting operation.
– Afore agriculture (February preferably), leaves that blow the arena can be removed forth with small offshoots.
– Agriculture division depends on variety, location and care; it could alpha aboriginal February;
– Accomplish abiding that fruits are accomplished and accord to bazaar needs (maturation test); bunches are activated for export standards;
– Acceptable administration of harvest, carriage to the packing house and packaging process.
– Blade pruning can be summarised as follows:
* Immediately afterwards autumn for the ones affecting the ground;
* During the additional abrasion operation and while accession the bunch, 1 to 2 leaves per agglomeration are to be removed if required, to leave chargeless amplitude for the bake-apple bunch; and
– Weeding about the approach needs to be practised on monthly basis;
– Microsprinklers or drippers and palms’s basin charge to be maintained on approved basis;
– Maintain mulching practices;
– Approved fi eld inspections for diseases and pests; and
– Plan in advence the labour requirements;
– Fertilisation Information
Table 45 listed in Affiliate VI gives capacity about the fertilisation programme.
Figure 89. Date approach anniversary abstruse calendar: Model of Naute (Keetmanshoop), Namibia.
1) Minimum temperature statistics from 1948 till 1985 at Keetmanshoop Airport.
2) August wind direction: N-East and Sept/Oct/Nov: West (severe)
3) 15 February till 15 March is the best burying time(no wind, no acute temperatures and clamminess is almost aerial - about 40%
4) Fertilisation and irrigation capacity are provided in affiliate VI and VII, respectively.
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