This is an amend of my anniversary CD column on Nobel Prizes, see aftermost year’s column here.
The map aloft assuming Nobel Prizes by regions about the apple was aggressive by a agnate one featured in an October 15, 2013, Washington Post article by Max Fisher (now at the NY Times) blue-blooded “The Amazing history of the Nobel Prize, told in map and charts.”
According to the Nobel website (not adapted yet for 2018), “896 Laureates and 27 organizations accept been awarded the Nobel Award-winning amid 1901 and 2017. Of them, 79 are Laureates in Economic Sciences. A baby cardinal of individuals and organizations accept been accustomed added than once, which agency that 892 individuals and 24 altered organizations accept accustomed the Nobel Award-winning in total. Adding the 12 Nobel laureates for 2018, there accept now been a absolute of 904 individuals (854 men and 50 women) from 70 altered countries who accept accustomed a Nobel Award-winning from 1901 to 2018.
Looking aback on the 118-year history of Nobel Prizes, actuality are my top ten best absorbing observations about Nobel Prizes and the 904 Nobel laureates based on the map above, and the basal abstracts for laureates by country, gender, religion, analysis affiliation, and age.
1. Western Countries Dominate Nobel Awards. The top map aloft shows the cardinal of Nobel Prizes awarded to individuals in eight bounded areas and one country (South Africa, back that one country represents best of the awards for Africa), based on this list of Nobel laureates by country. The annual includes a absolute of 1,107 country affiliations for Nobel Prizes because some of the 904 Nobel laureates are listed for added than one country back the official Nobel website mentions assorted countries — usually the country of bearing and the country breadth the laureate resides back the award-winning is awarded. For example, three Nobel laureates aftermost year had bifold country affiliations: Kazuo Ishi for abstract (born in Japan, has lived in the UK back he was 5), Joachim Frank for allure (born in Germany, now lives in the US), Rainer Weiss for physics (born in Germany, now lives in the US).
One of the best absorbing observations about the map aloft is that it shows that aloof two areas of the world: a) the US and Canada (403 awards) and b) Western Europe (495 awards) calm represent the all-inclusive majority of the 1,107 country affiliations associated with Nobel laureates, and added than 81% of the absolute cardinal of laureates back 1901. Back the 15 Nobel laureates from Australia and New Zealand are included, the allotment of Nobel Prizes awarded to laureates in Western countries increases to 82.5%.
The additional (proportional) map aloft is redrawn to appearance the about admeasurement of anniversary geographic breadth based on the cardinal of Nobel Prizes received, and helps to added allegorize graphically the ascendancy of US/Canada and Western Europe for Nobel laureates (and organizations) – those two areas represent added than 81% of the apple map.
2. Top Ten Nobel-Winning Countries. The United States is by far the world’s arch country for accepting Nobel Prizes with an astonishing 377 abandoned laureates over the aftermost 118 years (and 41.7% of all 904 awards), which is about three times added than the second-highest ranked country — the United Kingdom, with 130 awards (see table above). Following the UK is No. 3 Germany (108 awards), No. 4 France (69), and No. 5 Sweden (31). Aing comes Japan at No. 6 with 28 Nobel Award-winning recipients, and again Canada, Russia/Soviet Union and Switzerland are angry at 26 prizes. Rounding out the top ten countries (actually 11 because of a tie) are Austria and Netherlands angry with 21 awards. By itself, the US has won about 41% of all 904 awards back 1901!
To put the Nobel ascendancy of the United States in perspective, its laureates accept accustomed added Nobel awards (377) than the 366 prizes awarded to laureates in the aing bristles countries accumulated (UK, Germany, France, Sweden, and Japan). To put the ascendancy of the top two countries in perspective, the US and UK calm accept accustomed 507 Nobel Prizes, which is added than bisected (56.1%) of all 904 laureates back 1901, and individuals in the top three countries (US, UK and Germany) accept calm won 615 Nobel Prizes, or added than two-thirds (68%) of all awards.
Here’s a annual of Nobel Prizes per capita.
3. Latin America, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East together annual for abandoned 116 Nobel Prizes by country in absolute (10.5% of the 1,107 total), alike admitting those areas calm represent about 85% of the world’s population.
4. Asia. Laureates in Asia abandoned accept been awarded 57 Nobel prizes, or 5.1% of the absolute prizes by country amalgamation with about 55% of the world’s population. Nobel Prizes for Japanese laureates (28) represent aing to bisected of all Asian awards, followed by India (1o) and China (8). Adjusted for the huge citizenry of Asia (more than 4 billion), the cardinal of Asian laureates per 100 actor citizenry of 1.45 is abandoned hardly college than the cardinal of African laureates per 100 actor (1.42).
5. Middle East. Countries in the Middle East accept accustomed 22 Nobel Prizes, with added than bisected (12) of the awards activity to Israeli laureates. Of the 22 Nobel laureates from the Middle East, added than bisected (12) accustomed either the abstract (3) or accord award-winning (9). For the actual 10 Nobel Prizes in medicine, chemistry, physics and economics, 8 of those laureates were Israeli and one was from Egypt (chemistry) and one is Turkish (chemistry).
6. Africa is the arena of the apple with the atomic Nobel Prizes – abandoned 17 in total, and abandoned 7 alfresco of South Africa, alike admitting Africa has a citizenry of about 1 billion. Adjusted for population, both the US/Canada and Western Europe accept been awarded added than 100 Nobel Prizes per 100 actor people, compared to abandoned 1.41 Nobel Prizes awarded per 100 actor Africans. As mentioned above, Africa (1.41) is aloof hardly abaft Asia (1.45) for laureates per 100 actor population.
7. Jewish Nobel Laureates. Interestingly, Jews and bodies of Jewish coast represent beneath than 0.20% of the world’s population, but they represent added than 22% of all Nobel laureates (203 out of 904). Aftermost year, there were three 2017 Jewish laureates: Rainer Weiss and Barry Barish both for physics and Michael Rosbash for medicine. This year, there is one Jewish Nobel laureate, Arthur Ashkin was awarded the award-winning in physics. Actuality are the Jewish shares of the six abandoned Nobel Prizes:
a. Economics: 29 out of 81 or 35.8% (179 times the Jewish allotment of the population)b. Medicine: 54 out of 216, or 25.0% (125 times the Jewish allotment of the population)c. Physics: 55 out of 210 or 26.2% (131 times their allotment of the population)d. Chemistry: 35 out of 181 or 19.3% (more than 96 times their allotment of the population)e. Literature: 15 out of 114 or 13.2% (66 times their allotment of the population)f. Peace: 9 out of 106 or 8.5% (more than 42 times their allotment of the population)
8. Nobel Laureates by Gender. Men accept been awarded 847 Nobel Prizes compared to abandoned 51 prizes awarded to changeable laureates (see blueprint aloft and Nobel articulation here). By percentage, men accept accustomed 94.4% of all Nobel awards to individuals compared to 5.6% for women, which is a male-female Nobel Award-winning arrangement of 16.8-to-1. By field, women accept accustomed Nobel Prizes as follows (total sums to 51 because Marie Curie accustomed Nobel Prizes in both physics and chemistry):
a. Physics: 3b. Chemistry: 4c. Medicine: 12d. Literature: 14e. Peace: 17f. Economics: 1
Note that 31 of the 50 changeable laureates accustomed a Nobel Award-winning for either abstract or peace, and those two categories calm represent 62% of the absolute changeable Nobel laureates. This year, three of the 12 Nobel laureates were women for prizes in chemistry, physics and peace, compared to the aftermost two years back all 11 Nobel laureates in both 2016 and 2017 were male. In 2015, there were 8 men and 2 women; in 2014, 11 men and 2 women; and in 2013, 11 men and 1 woman. Like this year, there were additionally three changeable Nobel laureates in 2011 and bristles in 2009, which is the almanac for the best Nobel Prizes awarded to women in a year.
9. Analysis Affiliations of Nobel Laureates. The table aloft shows the top ten analysis affiliations of Nobel laureates at the time of the announcement.
10. Nobel Prizes by Age. Nobel Prizes accept been awarded to laureates as adolescent as 17-year old Malala Yousafzai (Peace award-winning in 2014) and as old as 96-year old Arthur Ashkin, one of the winners of the 2018 Nobel Award-winning for physics. At age 96, Ashkin is six years earlier than Leonid Hurwicz was in 2007 back he was awarded the Nobel Award-winning in economics. Based on the full annual of laureates by age, the blueprint beneath shows the age administration of the 904 Nobel laureates, whose boilerplate age was 58.7 years old back the award-winning was awarded. By abandoned age, there are added laureates who accustomed a Nobel Award-winning at age 61 or 63 years (33 individuals for anniversary age) than any added age, followed by ages 56 years (32 laureates) and 60 years (31 laureates).
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